SIGNIFICANCE O F DECENTRALIZATION FRAMEWORK I N CONSTRUCTING A MODEL O F DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENTAL REGIME A T LOCAL LEVEL (CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG CITY GOVERNMENT) 1

Tri Widodo W. Utomo

Abstract


Kebijakan desentralisasi luas yang digulirkan semenjak 1999 tidak saja dimaksudkan untuk memenuhi tuntutan reformasi, namun juga untuk mendorong terwujudnya pemerintahan yang demokratis dan berkinerja tinggi. Dalam tataran akademik, wacana tentang hubungan antara rezim demokratis dengan rezim pembangunan belum menemui titik temu. Sebagian berpendapat bahwa demokrasi merupakan produk dari proses pembangunan yang berhasil, sementara sebagian lain berargumen bahwa demokrasi merupakan prasyarat untuk dapat berjalannya pembangunan di suatu negara/daerah. Dalam upaya mewujudkan kondisi kepemerintahan lokal yang demokratis sekaligus berkinerja tinggi, kebijakan otonomi luas diyakini merupakan strategi yang tepat, sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh contoh di negara-negara yang menerapkan kebijakan serupa. Meskipun demikian, desentralisasi juga dapat mengalami kegagalan jika tidak dikelola dengan baik. Untuk itu, desentralisasi perlu diikuti dengan upaya membangun kapasitas daerah serta sinkronisasi tiga pilar kekuatan lokal menuju konsep pembangunan yang terintegrasi. Tulisan ini mencoba mengevaluasi implementasi desentralisasi di Kota Bandung. Hasil analisis mengindikasikan bahwa desentralisasi di Kota Bandung berdampak lebih signifikan terhadap penguatan demokrasi lokal dibanding terhadap peningkatan pembangunan sosial ekonomi. Meskipun demikian, untuk jangka panjang desentralisasi menumbuhkan harapan besar terwujudnya rezim pembangunan yang demokratis.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31113/jia.v2i1.475

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