In line with the change of government orientation by the end of twentieth century, from authority to democracy, the manner of public administration development tends to transform from theoretical to empirical. Accordingly, the preceding trademark of public administration as a compile of separate theories has to convert to be such a policy of Â Â problem solving to various public problems. The impact is the development of its dimensions towards the accomplishment of public needs, such as public management implementation, public policy, and public service functions (Nisjar, 1995:43-57).
In fact, such consideration corresponds to the fundamental nature of public administration as initially formulated by Woodrow Wilson in 1887 (Frederickson, 1980:2).Â Afterward, for more than a hundred years the scholars of public administration have developed various theories and approaches to inductively analyze the thoughts on public administration. The impact is the dynamic development of models and paradigms of public administration varied after their devisers, and the continuous ambiguity of its definition and scopes (Tjokroamidjojo, 1987:16) as Nicholas Henry (1975:27) once said â€œ... there is a crisis of definition in the field of public administration.â€ Based on the analysis of various thoughts on public administration, this article aims at revealing Â such ambiguity confusing many students of public administration for years.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The journal allow the authors to hold the copyright without restrictions and allow the authors to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
Bellone, Carl J., Organization Theory and the New Public Administration. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1980.
Dimock, Marshal E., Glagys O. Dimock and Louis W. Koenig, Public Administration. New York: Rhinehart and Company, 1960.
Dunn, William N. and Bahman Fouzouni, Toward a Critical Administrative Theory. Beverly Hill: Sage Publications, 1976, sebagaimana dikutip oleh Thoha, Miftah, Ibid, hal. 134.
Frederickson, H. George, New Public Administration. Alabama: The University of Alabama Press, 1980.
Golembiewski, Robert T. Public Administration as a Developing Discipline. Part I: Perspective on Past and Present. New York: Marcel Dekker (1977) in Nicholas Henry. Ibid, ps. 27-37.
Goodnow, Frank J., Politics and Administration. New York: Macmillan, 1900.
Henry, Nicholas, Public Administration and Public Affairs. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1975.
Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, USA: Chicago University Press, 1970:111-135.
LAN dan BPKP. Akuntabilitas dan Good Governance. Jakarta: Lembaga Administrasi publik, 2000:7-8.
Litchfield, Edward H, Notes on a General Theory of Administration, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. I, 1956.
Merriam-Webster, Websterâ€™s New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: G & C Merriam Company, 1977-830.
Mufiz, Ali, Buku Materi Pokok Pengantar Administrasi publik. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka, 1984-1985 dalam Bintoro Tjokroamidjojo, Ibid, hal. 20
Mustopadidjaja, Paradigma-Paradigma Pembangunan. Jakarta: Lembaga Administrasi publik Republik Indonesia, 2002, hal.3-4.
Nisjar, Karhi S., Pengaruh Pendelegasian Wewenang Sebagai Bagian Esensial Manajemen Strategi Terhadap Peningkatan Produktivitas Organisasi, disertasi program doktor. Bandung: Universitas Padjadjaran, 1995:43-57.
Osborne, David and Peter Plastrik, Banishing Bureaucracy. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1997.
Osborne, David and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government Reading, MA: A Plume Book, 1992.
Robbins, Stephen P., The Integrative Process: Integrating Theory and Practice. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 1976:47.
Thoha, Miftah, Birokrasi dan Politik di Indonesia. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 2003.
Thoha, Miftah, Dimensi-Dimensi Prima Ilmu Administrasi publik. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 2002.
Tjokroamidjojno, Bintoro, Studi Pembangunan Administrasi publik dan Administrasi Pembangunan: Perkembangan dan Penerapan. Jakarta: Lembaga Administrasi publik, 1987.
Waldo, Dwight, Public Administration in Marian D. Irish (ed). Political Science: Advance of the Discipline. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968:153-189.
Waldo, Dwight, The Study of Public Administration. New York: Random House Inc., 1953.